黑洞理论,霍金你错了N回!/Bob paradox = Sum {wrong (i)}

一、定义真正的悖论和错误的悖论:
任何真正的悖论(g-paradox),它必须有两个事实,并导致出矛盾的结果。
每一真正的悖论(如,自体同源的悖论,康托悖论,如罗素悖论等)可以以两种方式解决。
第一,必须有更高的对称性,才能统一矛盾的双方。
第二,可以通过进一步的对称性破缺消除矛盾。
然而,对于一个错误的悖论,它是用下面的方式定义的:
错误的悖论=总和(事实(i))+ 总和(错误(i))
例如:黑洞信息悖论=爱丽丝/鲍勃悖论:

N=错误次数求和 {错误的悖论(i),i-physcists =1,2,3,4。。。}

I   一段简史
有了这个定义,我们现在可以回顾{爱丽丝/鲍勃(黑洞信息)佯谬}。
首先,有一些事实:
一、根据GR(广义相对论),有些恒星(大约3倍太阳的质量,3米☉(托尔曼–奥本海默–沃尔科夫限制))崩溃的恒星黑洞会在一个区域,甚至光都无法摆脱或逃避其强大的引力,因此有事件视界,或具有史瓦西半径。
二、这个恒星黑洞应该是“无毛”,也就是说,只有三个宏观参数(质量,电荷,角动量)没有任何其他变量(毛)。
以上这些事实,没有矛盾。这样的恒星黑洞是一颗曾经活着的恒星的埋葬地,而恒星的所有量子信息作为一个恒星遗骨都被埋葬了,但并没有丢失。
然而,有I = 1(Stephen Hawking),他提出以下声称。
第一:黑洞是一个黑色的物体,因此,它应该有黑体热辐射(光子)。
第二:黑洞的热辐射会导致黑洞最终的总蒸发。
第三:这种热辐射不是任何恒星遗骨(信息)的载体。
因此,结论是,当这个恒星坟场(黑洞)被完全蒸发时,应该有恒星遗骨存在!这个恒星遗骨莫名其妙地消失了,恒星遗骨不是由热辐射或光子传出被蒸发掉了。所以,恒星遗骨丢失了就是黑洞信息丢失了。但是,这个结论与量子力学定律是矛盾的,因此构成黑洞信息悖论。
现在,我们有第一个版本的“黑洞信息”悖论。

然后,i= 2(李奥纳特•苏士侃和Larus Thorlacius,和其他一些人),他们提出了以下要求。
第一,新的蒸发过程是在黑洞视界附近不断产生的虚粒子对:爱丽丝和鲍伯,而不是热光子。其中一个爱丽丝掉进黑洞,而鲍伯逃逸。
第二,逃逸的鲍勃最终会导致黑洞的全部蒸发。
第三,由于爱丽丝和鲍伯是纠缠的双胞胎(只有不同的性别),爱丽丝的所有信息都可以从鲍伯那里得到。
结论:虽然黑洞蒸发掉了一切,包括爱丽丝的遗骨也永远消失了,但她的灵魂在她的孪生兄弟鲍伯身上被量子纠缠所保存。所以,没有黑洞信息丢失的悖论。

于是,有了有第二个版本的“黑洞信息”悖论。
没完,还有i= 3(Ahmed Almheiri,Donald Marolf,Joseph Polchinski,和James Sully),他们宣称。
第一,爱丽丝没有被白白地杀死,因为她在最后一口气(当然是按照GR定律)吐出一点蓝光,而那小小的蓝光使黑洞的视界变的更蓝了。
第二,经过足够的(在大约一半的黑洞蒸发)蓝光积累,事件视界成为任何新的下落的爱丽丝谁将油炸和永远无法进入黑洞防火墙。也就是说,在所有的实际意义上,这个洞已经消失了(没有东西能掉进去)。
问题:联合蒸发的半黑洞还存在吗?没有任何证据判别!
如果它还在那里,它还会从这一点一点地蒸发掉吗?
如果它不停地蒸发,最后,剩下的遗骨会发生什么?由于防火墙封闭的修补方案不能挽救黑洞继续蒸发,那么,剩下的遗骨是否也都丢失了呢?
我们有第三个版本的“黑洞信息”悖论。

嗯,演出必须继续下去。所以,i= 4(Stephen Hawking,Andrew Strominger,Malcolm J. Perry)。当然,所有这些错误的最简单的方法就是谴责“无毛发”定理。所以,他们现在宣称所有的黑洞都有‘毛’。
但是,但是,但是,其刚刚宣布它观察到的“引力波”是由两个黑洞碰撞产生的。然而,在计算中(从观察到的引力波来看),这两个碰撞的黑洞没有“毛发”。此外,霍金的阻塞毛发的数量可能不足以携带所有的死亡骨架。
对于任何一个恒星黑洞来说,它实际上并没有任何实际意义上的霍金热辐射,因为黑洞的表观温度比周围的温度要冷得多(大约2.7欧凯文)。也就是说,一个恒星黑洞不会向外辐射,而是吸收周围环境的热辐射。由超新星过程形成的恒星黑洞不会蒸发到现在或在可预见的将来(至少是宇宙的两倍)。
那么,为什么“黑洞信息”悖论还在继续呢?

嗯,可能有一些原始黑洞(大爆炸的结果,不是超新星过程的结果),它们有更小的质量。黑洞的温度与它的质量成反比。要使黑洞的温度大于2.7 K(并且能够蒸发),它需要比Moon少的质量,这样一个黑洞的直径将小于第十毫米,现在它可以蒸发。在最后一个蒸发阶段,一个原始黑洞会发出伽马射线,这应该是可以探测到的。对这种闪光的搜索已证明是不成功的,并对存在低质量原始黑洞的可能性提出了严格的限制。然而,NASA在2008发射的费米伽马射线太空望远镜将继续搜寻这些闪光。

如果原始黑洞的前景不太好,为什么这个“黑洞信息”悖论还在继续呢?
根据M理论,应该有一些微型原始黑洞。对于一个质量1 TeV/C2的黑洞,大型强子对撞机(I)它可以检测到。但是,迄今为止还没有发现这样的微小黑洞,包括迄今为止的LHC(II)数据。
再说一遍,为什么这个毫无道理的黑洞信息悖论还在继续?

他们说:在上述历史上有一些重大的发现。
发现一种新的熵:
霍金在一般情况下表明,任何一系列经典黑洞视界的总面积不会永远减少,即使它们碰撞合并。这就成为黑洞力学的第二定律,与热力学第二定律极为相似。以质量作为能量,表面重力为温度,面积为熵,有一种新的熵。

这是一个黑洞的Bekenstein––霍金熵(S),这取决于黑洞的面积(A),光速常数(C),玻尔兹曼常数(K),牛顿常数(G),和约化普朗克常数(ħ)。
在经典熵中,黑洞应该具有近零熵。但这种新型的熵,Bekenstein认为黑洞是最大熵的物体,他们有比相同体积的东西更多的熵。
其二,这个新的熵,热拉尔’t Hooft和李奥纳特•苏士侃发现了全息原理,这表明任何一个时空发生的过程可以通过对该时空的边界数据描述。
其三、与全息原理,Juan Maldacena在1997发现的AdS/CFT对应性。这个AdS/CFT成为M理论问题的大救星。
今天,这个AdS/ CFT对应性是主流物理学的超越标准模型物理唯一有效的方法。

II:详细审查

以上是近40年来现代物理学的简史。这段历史能带来美好的未来吗?或者,这是完全错误的吗?
如果我们没有一个与上述错误的不同的道路,我们就没有权利说它错了。如果我们的途径不正确,我就没有权利去说别人的错误。

我们可以简单地比较:谁能得到所有的自然常数(Cabibbo角/温伯格,Alpha,宇宙学常数,等)和普朗克CMB数据?
(主流)历史上没有人可以,但龚学可以。
Paul Steinhardt’s remorse, Popperianism and Beauty-Contest
有了这些的比较,谁对谁错就很显然了:也就不再有关于科学方法论的争论了。现在,我们有权直言不讳:这种“黑洞信息悖论”的历史完全走错了道路。

Note: Stephen Hawking conceded for stirring up this ‘dead-skeleton lost’- paradox at this point.
在显示正确的路径之前,必须先指出上面历史上的一些错误。

错误一:霍金辐射都是关于热光子的,热光子无静止质量,说辐射带走质量实际上毫无意义。
错误二:黑洞不会演出爱丽丝与鲍勃消失戏剧。在任何黑洞的物理学原理中,鲍伯和爱丽丝是由真空能产生的粒子对,没有任何原理只让鲍勃逃脱而爱丽丝留下。在这个爱丽丝/鲍勃的戏剧中,即使是用黑洞的能量来支付鲍勃的逃跑,也没有任何一种物理定律要求爱丽丝必须始终携带负能量。没有任何原理让黑洞的“质量”减少,也就是说,鲍伯的逃脱不会从黑洞中带走任何质量。爱丽丝是一个粒子(不仅仅是光子),她也携带一些静止的质量。所以,如果爱丽丝不给黑洞提供更多的质量,这个爱丽丝/鲍勃的戏剧至少也不会引起黑洞的蒸发。
错误三:如果黑洞蒸发,其最终的史瓦西半径将变为零,其熵的区域将成为零。也就是说,霍金的黑洞面积定律是错误的。

正确的道路只有一个问题:什么是重力?
重力很简单,它可以把百事可乐(坐在我休息的桌子上)从{这里,现在]转到[这里,下一个] }。而且,它需要一个力F(重力)来完成它。
F(重力)= K *ħ/(ΔS×Δt),k是一个常数。
然后,量子原理从这个F(重力)中出现。当然,我们可以对重力做更详细的定义,如下所示。
第一,重力必须基于粒子物理学,因为只有粒子携带质量(重力的唯一参数)。牛顿引力和广义相对论与粒子物理学无关,因此它们是错误的引力理论。seehttps://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/03/16/nothingness-vs-nothing-there-the-quantum-gravity/
第二,用牛顿引力方程描述了任意两物体间的万有引力(2)。
第三,重力必须 瞬时 和 同时 作用 (在这个宇宙中的所有粒子)。重力绝对不会以光速传播,尽管重力波(重力的属性)是。万有引力不是“局部的”。但是,我坐在桌子上的百事可乐罐的重力是:
F(百事重力)=Gm{求和[M(i)/ R(i)^ 2 ] } …..A方程
i代表整个宇宙的粒子,除了百事可乐。m是百事可乐的质量。

百事可乐可就放在我的桌子上(世界床单上的一块地)静止休息,它(百事可乐罐)与宇宙中所有其他粒子相互作用。{这是由两个部分组成的:世界表(真宇宙)和鬼点}。也就是说,百事可乐可以通过两条途径与宇宙的所有其他粒子联系在一起:
在物质世界中,它与其他粒子之间的距离是r(i)>0。因此,用牛顿重力方程计算了它们之间的引力相互作用强度。
因为,它(百事可乐)通过幽灵点与所有其他粒子相连,它与所有其他粒子之间的距离为所有“i”的R(I)={普朗克长度}。
因此,百事可乐的重力强度可以用A方程来计算。
重力传输的时间是{普朗克时间},几乎是瞬时的。
当一个物体的重力(比如百事可乐)的重力是用A方程式计算出来的,重力传输是通过“普朗克时间”,重力的真正定义是它把整个宇宙从现在移动到下一个}。参见, HTTP:/ / www.prequark.org /gravity.htm 详情。

III:悖论不再!

现在,我们可以通过两种途径来解决“黑洞信息”悖论问题。
一、宇宙自诞生以来的每一点信息(大爆炸)都是用一个详细的簿记记录的,宇宙学常数(cc)。通过比较计算CC和测量,我们将知道是否有任何信息丢失。我的计算表明,没有信息丢失,看到 https: / / tienzengong.WordPress.COM / 2016 / 04 / 24 /熵量子引力宇宙学常数/ 。
两个黑洞不是通过爱丽丝/鲍勃戏剧形成的。这个“边缘”戏剧怎么能深入到黑洞的本质?只有知道黑洞是如何形成的,我们才能讨论黑洞最终的死亡(如果有的话)。
总的来说,我们说当物体的内部压强不足以抵抗物体自身的引力时,就会发生重力坍缩。这种说法没有错误,但却是误导性的,而且确实误导了。

它的内部压力是多少?
它自身的引力是什么?
我将用两个概念来澄清这些问题。
一,{自由粒子}:
其内部的压力是什么?
什么是其自身的重力?
我想有两个清晰的概念基础。
一个粒子,{自由粒子}:
以我们的太阳为例:整个空间(一箱)一个给定的原子(氢原子等),在它的一生中被作为一个roamed自由粒子(一个原子箱)。这个自由的粒子(盒)可能是一个在其面立方体100英里,它包含数十亿原子。为每一个粒子(无盒),它可以作为一个粒子(静止不动)。
定义:如果一个净力为零的粒子,这是一个自由的粒子。
这是a {自由},粒子在其余条件总是在盒子的盒子),AS是不接收任何外部的力和力不出任何项目。
定理:一个粒子在一个紧凑的对象A,它是一个自由的粒子
corollary:水分子在一个冰格是一个自由的粒子。
因此,中子在中子星A A是一个自由的粒子。
二,潮汐力:
一杆(或箱)有一英尺长(RA,RB,[米] = 1),有一个在潮汐力杆(或盒(箱)),如果它不是一个自由粒子一紧凑的对象(源的潮汐重力)
潮汐力(a,b)= f(r)-(的R – 1)= f(a,b)的TF
在A和B是重力为:
f(a)= F(R,R)是一个长途的中心点,填充的对象。
f(b)= f(r + 1),不要一米远离中心。
如果重力潮汐力一紧凑的对象在一个盒(a,b),小(的)结构的结合力比盒子(氢原子),它可以形成恒星,它无法通过原子分开。
如果重力潮汐力一紧凑的对象在一个盒(a,b)较大(>)的结合力比结构盒子(氢原子)的原子将被终止,然后分开。本案例中,它可能变成一个中子星。
当重力潮汐力在一箱一紧凑的对象(中子)是更大的比(>)结构结合力(中子,中子和拉除了它变成黑洞。当然,我们没有去成黑洞是通过中子星的舞台。
因此,基本上,这是,至少,三类型的恒星。
一,“质子星”(PS):星状如我们的太阳是由99.99%的氢原子(含质子)”
二,“中子星(NS)
三、“黑洞(BH)
质子星主要是由质子(氢原子)构成。太阳的潮汐力是不足以大的分开氢原子的。然而,核融合产生足够的热能量平衡对太阳的引力。因此,它有一个大的直径。
它的崩塌,有几个途径。
结果I型超新星的白矮星的明星:a,a:碳融合的支持7000km半径(约是地球的大小)。然而,它仍然是一个质子的明星。
结果II型超新星:当足够大的潮汐力是分手的氢或氦原子的中子星,它崩塌collapses作为一个平均半径(1到10英里),一个小城市的大小。所有原子的质子是从中间隔断,和没有人可以活下去。
如果潮汐力是足够强的分手的“中子”,成为“IT黑洞的史瓦西半径约10英里’for a 3太阳质量的黑洞。把所有强子的粒子是分开的。
两个Schwarzschild黑洞的描述,有一个奇点在Schwarzschild球面中心。但是,在这个环的G弦的描述,每个字符串是一个“奇点”的准备,没有奇点,在中心的地方。
三串,每个环是一个自由的粒子内部的黑洞。这是更长的时间,没有任何自由落体或潮汐重力在这个环的字符串时,它的事件视界的护照。
四,事件视界是本面条化spaghettification innermost圈区。
因此,“量子引力”是一个关于重力之间的中子在中子星?
重力是整个宇宙的一个动作力这是量子单位,参见:http:/ /  prebabel.blogspot.com /2013-11 -为什么是黑暗能量的补充性原则universe.html 量子重力。
再次,每一个粒子在紧凑的对象(A固体球,明星等)是一个自由的粒子。
因此,粒子在重力作用下紧凑对象互相相等,equals对象的所有粒子是按照光盘的Freundlich方程。
中子在中子星的中心湖与中子在中子星边缘具有一样的重力。

当g-quark /轻子弦(线)卷曲成环的字符串,夸克的色荷和代中和(不破坏)。所以,当一个粒子(中子,质子,电子或其他)落入黑洞,它成为一个环串,所有的电荷中和而保守。当它们被辐射出去以后(如果有的话),环重新拉直以恢复它们的电荷。也就是说,没有信息丢失,也没有获得。

这是龚弦的描述和经典之间的差异。
一,而不是与史瓦西半径视界,有一个面条拉伸(spaghettification)区。当一个粒子(或其他)是面条拉伸spaghettified,它分解成g-ring-strings。
二,黑洞的史瓦西描述在史瓦西球中心的一个“奇点”。但是,在这个龚学描述,每一环的龚弦本身是一个“奇点”,并没有在任何地方出现任何奇异的中心。
三,每个环串是黑洞内部的一个自由粒子。也就是说,当这个环弦穿过事件视界时不再有自由落体或潮汐重力。
四,事件视界是面条拉伸spaghettification区核心圈。
所以,“量子引力”并不是中子星中中子之间的引力。
重力是整个宇宙的量子单位产生的力!参见http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/11/why-does-dark-energy-make-universe.html,量子原理是重力的显现。

同样,致密物体(实心球、恒星等)中的每一个粒子都是自由粒子。
因此,在一个紧凑的物体中的粒子的重力等于根据这个方程A在这个致密物体中的所有粒子。中子星中心的中子与中子在边缘的引力相同。
IV:结论
这个信息悖论问题有两种解决方法。
一、簿记、宇宙学常数的计算。
二、是黑洞的内部结构,所有的环弦仍然带有质量和电荷,但所有其他信息都被储存起来。

最后,全息原理是宇宙物理运动(从现在(t1)到下一个(T2))产生的直接结果。

原文见附:

Alice/Bob paradox = Sum {wrong (i)}

by tienzengong

For any genuine paradox (G-paradox), it must have two FACTs which lead to CONTRADICTORY results.

In Chapter three of {The Divine Constitution (ISBN 0916713067,9780916713065, see https://books.google.com/books?id=8MMzPwAACAAJ&dq=inauthor:%22Gong+Jeh-Tween%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=9oDyT9z8E-PO2wWznf2fAg )}, it states: every G-paradox (such as, the Grelling autological paradox, Cantor’s paradox, Russell set paradox, etc.) can be resolved in two ways.

One, there must be a higher symmetry which is able to unify the contradiction.

Two, the contradiction can always be removed by further symmetry breaking.

However, for a wrong-paradox, it is defined with the following equation:

Sum (fact (i)) + sum (error (i)) = wrong-paradox

For, i = {physcists}

I: A brief history

With this definition, we can now review the {Alice/Bob (black hole information) paradox}.

First, some facts.

One, according to GR (general relativity), some stars (with about 3 times of Sun’s mass, 3 M☉ (the Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit)) would collapse into a stellar black hole (a region that even lights cannot get out or escape) which has an event horizon (having Schwarzschild radius).

Two, this stellar black hole should be ‘hairless’, that is, having only three macro-parameters (mass, electric charge, and angular momentum) without any other variables (hairs).

Note 1, at this point, there is no paradox. This stellar black hole is a burial site for a once living star while all the quantum information of the star were buried (as a dead skeleton) but not lost.

Yet, there is i = 1 (Stephen Hawking), and he made the following CLAIMs.

One, black hole is a black body, and thus it should have THERMAL-radiation (photons).

Two, this thermal radiation of black hole will lead to the eventual TOTAL evaporation of the black hole.

Three, this thermal radiation is not a carrier for any dead-skeleton (information).

So, the conclusion is that when this burial site (black hole) is totally evaporated, no dead-skeleton can be found while they were not carried out by the outgoing vapors (the thermal radiation, the photons). So, the dead-skeleton is simply lost (the black hole information paradox). But, this conclusion is in conflict (contradicting) with the laws of quantum mechanics.

Now, we have a ‘dead-skeleton lost’ paradox.

Then, there are i = 2 (Leonard Susskind and Larus Thorlacius, and some others), and they made the following CLAIMs.

One, the vapors are virtual particle pairs (Alice and Bob, not thermal photons) which are constantly being created near the horizon of the black hole, and one of them (always Alice) falls into the hole while Bob escapes.

Two, the escaping Bob will eventual lead to the TOTAL evaporation of that black hole.

Three, as Alice and Bob are entangled twins (only different in sex), all information of doomed Alice can be recovered from Bob.

The conclusion: although Alice’s dead-skeleton was lost forever, her SOUL is preserved in her twin-brother Bob via the quantum entanglement. So, there is no ‘dead-skeleton (information) lost’ paradox.

 

 

Note: Stephen Hawking conceded for stirring up this ‘dead-skeleton lost’- paradox at this point.

Finally, there is i = 3 (Ahmed Almheiri, Donald Marolf, Joseph Polchinski, and James Sully), and they CLAIMed the followings.

One, Alice was not killed in vain, as she puffs out a bit blue light during her last breath (of course in accordance to the law of GR), and that little blue light made the black hole’s event horizon a bit bluer.

Two, after enough (when about half of the black hole has evaporated) blue light accumulated, the event horizon becomes a firewall for any new infalling Alice who will be fried and never be able to go into the hole. That is, in all practical senses, the HOLE has disappeared (nothing can fall in anymore).

Question:

Is the un-evaporated half-black hole still there (as a reality)?

If it is still there, how can it evaporate from this point on?

If it keeps evaporating somehow, what happen to the remaining ‘dead skeleton”? As the complementarity scheme can no longer work for firewall enclosed black hole, is the remaining ‘dead skeleton” lost or not?

Well, the SHOW must keep going. So, there is i = 4 (Stephen Hawking, Andrew Strominger,  Malcolm J. Perry). Of course, the easiest way out for all those wrongs is to denounce the ‘no-hair’-theorem. So, they now CLAIM that all black holes have ‘HAIRs’.

But, but, but, LIGO just announced that it observed ‘gravitational wave’ which was produced by the collision of two black holes. Yet, in its calculation (from and with that observed gravitational wave), these two colliding black holes have ‘NO-HAIRs’. Furthermore, the amount of Hawking block hole hairs might not be ENOUGH to carry all the dead-skeleton.

For a (any) stellar black hole, it has in fact NO Hawking THERMAL radiation in any practical sense, as the apparent temperature of black hole is much colder than the ambient temperature (about 2.7 Kelvin). That is, instead of radiating out, a (any) stellar black hole will absorb thermal radiation from its surroundings. No (absolutely not) stellar black hole formed from the supernova process can evaporate up to now or in a foreseeable future (at least twice the life time of this universe).

Then, why is this ‘dead-skeleton’ paradox still going?

Well, there could be some primordial black holes (result of Big Bang, not from the supernova process) which have much smaller mass. And, the black hole temperature is inversely proportional to its mass. To have a black hole temperature larger than 2.7 K (and be able to evaporate), it would need a mass less than the Moon, and such a black hole would have a diameter of less than a tenth of a millimeter, and it can evaporate by now. During its last stage of evaporation, a primordial black hole can give out burst of gamma rays, which should be detectable. Searches for such flashes have proven unsuccessful and provide stringent limits on the possibility of existence of low mass primordial black holes. However, NASA’s Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope launched in 2008 will continue the search for these flashes.

If the prospect of the primordial black holes is not good, again, why is this ‘dead-skeleton’ paradox still going?

Well, there should have some kind of micro-black holes according to the M-string theory. For a black hole of mass 1 TeV/c2, it could be detected at LHC (Run I). But, no such a micro-black hole was found thus far, including the LHC (Run II) data thus far.

Again, why is this ‘dead-skeleton (information)’ paradox still going?

They said: there are some great discoveries during the above history.

One, a new kind of entropy:

Hawking showed under general conditions that the total area of the event horizons of any collection of classical black holes can never decrease, even if they collide and merge. This becomes the second law of black hole mechanics, remarkably SIMILAR to the second law of thermodynamics. With the mass acting as energy, the surface gravity as temperature and the area as entropy, there is a new type of entropy.

This is the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy (S) of a black hole, which depends on the area of the black hole (A). The constants are the speed of light (c), the Boltzmann constant (k),Newton’s constant (G), and the reduced Planck constant (ħ).

In classical entropy, black holes should have near-zero entropy. But with this new type of entropy, Bekenstein claimed that black holes are maximum entropy objects—that they have more entropy than anything else in the same volume.

Two, with this new entropy, Gerard ‘t Hooft and Leonard Susskind discovered the holographic principle, which suggests that anything that happens in a volume of spacetime can be described by data on the boundary of that volume.

Three, with the holographic principle, Juan Maldacena discovered the AdS/CFT correspondence in 1997. This AdS/CFT correspondence becomes lifesaver for M-string theory on its issue of compactification.

Today, this AdS/CFT correspondence is the only pathway for the beyond the Standard Model physics for the mainstream physics.

II: A detailed review

The above is a brief history for the modern physics in the last 40 years. Is this history leading to a great future? Or, is it totally wrong?

If I do not have a different PATHWAY from the above wrong one, I will not have the right to call it wrong. If my pathway is not correct, I will not have the right to call other’s wrong. The comparison is very simple.

Who can derive all nature constants (Cabibbo/Weinberg angles, Alpha, Cosmology Constant, etc.) and the Planck CMB data?

No one in the above history (the mainstream) can, but I can: see,

https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2015/04/22/dark-energydark-mass-the-silent-truth/ and

https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2015/05/15/paul-steinhardts-remorse-popperianism-and-beauty-contest/

With these comparisons, there is no more argument about, the scientific methodology or else. And now, I have the right to call a spade a spade. The history of this ‘information paradox’ is totally on a wrong path.

Before showing the correct PATHWAY, I will point out a few Errors in the above history first.

Error one, Hawking radiation was all about thermal photons, and it is practically meaningless.

Error two, black hole will not evaporate with the Alice/Bob drama. Bob is not a part of the ‘PRINCIPLE’ in any black hole’s bank account; that is, the escape of Bob will not take any energy away from black hole. Even if this Alice/Bob drama were paid for with the ‘principle’ of the black hole, there is no physics law demands that Alice must always carry the ‘negative’ energy (which reduces the ‘principle’ of the black hole). Alice being a particle (not just photon), she carries some rest mass. So, if she does not provide more mass to the black hole, this Alice/Bob drama will at least not cause evaporation of black hole at all.

 

Error three, if the black hole does evaporate, its final Schwarzschild radius will go to zero, and its entropy ‘AERA’ will become zero too. That is, Hawking’s ‘area’ law of black hole is wrong.

The correct path is only about one issue. What is gravity?

Gravity is very simple; it moves the Pepsi can (sits on my desk at REST) from {[here, now] to [here, next]}. And, it takes a force F (gravity) to do it.

F (gravity) = K*ħ/ (delta S*delta T), K is a coefficient constant.

Then, quantum principle emerges from this F (gravity). Seehttp://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/11/why-does-dark-energy-make-universe.html for details.

Of course, we can make more detailed definition for gravity as follows.

One, gravity must be based on particle physics, as only particles are carrying mass (the only parameter for gravity). Both Newtonian gravity and General Relativity have nothing to do with particle physics, and thus they are wrong gravity theories. Seehttps://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/03/16/nothingness-vs-nothing-there-the-quantum-gravity/

Two, the strength of gravity between any TWO objects is described with Newtonian gravity equation (GmM/r^2).

Three, gravity must be both instantaneous and simultaneous (to ALL particles in this universe). Gravity is DEFINITEly not transmitted with light speed, although the gravitational wave (an attribute of gravity) is. Gravity by all means is not ‘local’. But, the strength of gravity for the Pepsi can which sits on my desk at rest is:

F (Pepsi gravity) = Gm {sum [M(i)/r(i)^2]}  ….. Equation A

i represents the particles of the entire universe, except the Pepsi.

 

The Pepsi can is sitting on my desk (a spot on the world sheet) at rest, and it (Pepsi can) is interacting with ALL other particles in this universe {which consists of two parts: the world sheet (real universe) and a Ghost point}. That is, this Pepsi can is linked to all other particle of this universe in two pathways:

One, in the real (matter) world, the distance between it and other particles is r(i) > 0. So, the gravitational interaction strength between them is calculated with the Newtonian gravity equation.

Two, it (Pepsi can) is linked to all other particles via the Ghost point, and the distance between it and all other particles is R(i) = {a Planck length} for all “i”.

So, the gravity STRENGTH for Pepsi can is calculated with Equation A.

The TIME for the gravity transmission is a {Planck time}, practically instantaneously.

While the gravity of ONE object (such as a Pepsi can) is calculated with Equation A, and the gravity transmission is via ‘Planck time’, the true definition for gravity is that it moves the entire universe from {now to next}. See graph below and http://www.prequark.org/Gravity.htm for details.

 

 

Note: this AdS/CFT correspondence is the direct consequence of the above mechanism.

III: Paradox no more!

Now, we can address the ‘information’ issue in two ways.

One, every bit of information of this universe since its inception (Big Bang) is recorded with a detailed bookkeeping, the Cosmology Constant (CC). By comparing the calculated CC and the measurement, we will know whether there is any information loss. My calculation shows that there is no information loss at all, see https://tienzengong.wordpress.com/2016/04/24/entropy-quantum-gravity-cosmology-constant/ .

Two, black hole is not formed via the Alice/Bob drama. How can a ‘fringe’-drama dig into the essence? Only by knowing exactly of how black hole is formed, we can then discuss its eventual death (if any).

In general, we said that gravitational collapse occurs when an object’s internal pressure is insufficient to resist the object’s own gravity. This statement is not wrong but is misleading, and it did mislead.

What is its internal pressure?

What is its own gravity?

I will make these more clear with two concepts.

One, {free particle}:

In the case of our Sun, the entire space (a BOX) that a given atom (hydrogen atom, etc.) in its lifetime roamed in is viewed as a free particle (the box, not the atom). This free particle (the box) might be a cube with 100 miles on its sides, and it contains billions atoms. For every free particle (the box), it is viewed as a at rest (not moving) particle.

Definition: if a NET force on a particle = zero, it is a free particle.

That is, a {free particle} is always at rest (in terms of the box), as that box does not receive any external force and does not project out any force.

Theorem one: for a particle in a compact object, it is a free particle

Corollary one: the water molecular in the ice-lattice is a free particle.

So, a neutron inside of a neutron star is a free particle.

Two, tidal force:

For a rod (or a box) with one meter long, [(rB – rA) = 1 meter], there is a tidal force on this rod (or box) if it (the box) is not a free particle of a compact object (the source of the tidal gravity),

Tidal force of (A, B) = F(r) – F(r-1) = Tf(A, B)

The gravity force for A and B are:

F(A) = F(r), r is the distance of point A to the center of the packed object.

F(B) = F(r + 1), one meter farther away from the center.

If the gravity tidal force of a compact object on a box (A, B) is smaller (<) than the structure binding force of the box (hydrogen atom), it could form stars, as it cannot tear atoms apart.

If the gravity tidal force of a compact object on a box (A, B) is larger (>) than the structure binding force of the box (hydrogen atom), then the atoms will be pulled apart. In this case, it most likely becomes a ‘neutron’ star.

When the gravity tidal force of a compact object on a box (neutron) is larger (>) than the structure binding force of neutron, it pulls neutrons apart and becomes a black hole. Of course, most of black holes are formed without going through the neutron star stage.

So, basically, there are, at least, three types of stars.

One, ‘proton’ star (PS): like our Sun which is 99.99% composed of ‘hydrogen atom (containing proton)”

Two, ‘neutron’ star (NS)

Three, ‘black hole’ (BH)

The diameter of PS (like Sun) is in average of ‘one million’ miles, and mostly composed of protons (hydrogen atom). The tidal force of Sun is not big enough to break up the hydrogen atom. Yet, the nuclear fusion produces enough ‘thermal-energy’ to balance the gravitation force of the Sun. So, it has a huge diameter.

When the hydrogens are all burnt out, the helium fusion produces much less thermo-energy, the gravitation force will get the upper hand and pull the matter inward. It collapses, with a few pathways.

Type I Supernova: results a white dwarf star, the carbon fusion begins to support a radius about 7000km (about the size of Earth). Yet, it is still a ‘proton’ star.

Type II Supernova: When the tidal force is big enough to break up hydrogen or helium atoms, it collapses as a neutron star with the average radius of (1 to 10 miles), a size of a small city. All atoms are pulled apart, and no proton can survive.

If the tidal force is strong enough to break up ‘neutron’, it becomes ‘black hole’ with Schwarzschild radius about 10 miles for a 3-solar-mass black hole. All hadron particles are pulled apart.

Then, what is inside of the black hole?

The wrong way of saying says that black hole converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. Other wrong way says that there could be the quark/gluon plasma.

In the classic theory, black hole is defined with a Schwarzschild radius which marks an event horizon. However, in this G-string-gravity theory, black hole is formed by tearing apart all particles via the spaghettification.

 

 

After this spaghettification, all particles are torn apart and become strings.

In M-string theory, those strings form the branes.

In G-string theory, those quark/lepton-strings (line-string) curl up into ring-strings, which has zero area and zero volume.

The big difference between G-string and M-string is that G-string has ‘internal’ structure (described with A, V). Those quark/lepton G-strings are ‘line’-strings. When they become ring-strings, they are no different from the M-ring-strings, see http://prebabel.blogspot.com/2011/11/m-theory-toe-if-and-only-if-it-adds-two.html .

That is, all M-string’s formula do work for G-string. In the black hole, G-string will become an M-ring-string.

Note: without the internal structure, M-string is unable to describe the universe outside of the black hole and is a failed theory, seehttps://medium.com/@Tienzen/indeed-the-m-string-theory-is-a-total-bullcrap-for-the-following-reasons-ca9a44931938#.5lav4kdh8 .

When G-quark/lepton-string (line-string) curls up into a ring-string, the quark color charge and generations are neutralized (not destroyed). So, when a particle (neutron, proton, lepton or else) falls into a black hole, it becomes a ring-string, with all charges neutralized but conserved. When they are radiated out later (if any), the rings straighten back up to regain their charges. That is, no information lost, nor gained.

 

There are two differences between this G-string description and the classic one.

One, instead of an event horizon with Schwarzschild radius, there is a spaghettification zone. As soon as a particle (or else) is spaghettified, it breaks up into G-ring-strings.

Two, the Schwarzschild description of black hole has a ‘singularity’ at the CENTER of the Schwarzschild sphere. But, in this G-string description, each ring-string is a ‘singularity’ of itself, and there is no singularity at the center of anywhere.

Three, each ring-string is a free particle inside of the black hole. That is, there is no longer any free-falling or tidal gravity on this ring-string when it passes the event horizon.

Four, the event horizon is the innermost circle of this spaghettification zone.

 

So, ‘quantum gravity’ is not about the gravity between neutrons in the neutron star?

Gravity is the force which MOVEs this entire universe with quantum units, seehttp://prebabel.blogspot.com/2013/11/why-does-dark-energy-make-universe.html and the quantum principle is the emergent of gravity.

Again, every particle in a compact object (solid ball, star, etc.) is a free particle.

So, the gravity of a particle in a compact object EQUALs to all particles in that compact object in accordance to the Equation A.

And, the neutron at the center of the neutron star sees the same gravity as the neutron at the edge.

IV: Conclusion

This information issue is addressed in two ways.

One, the bookkeeping, the calculation of the Cosmology Constant.

Two, the internal structure of the black hole, all ring-strings which still carry the mass and electric charge, but all other information is stored away.

Finally, the holographic principle is the direct consequence of the moving (from now (t1) to next (t2)) universe.

 

 

tienzengong | May 30, 2016 at 2:53 pm | Categories: Uncategorized | URL:http://wp.me/p3PVI2-4u
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